Does Virginia have “Whistle-Blower” protection?
An employee of Virginia state or local governments have protection against retaliation or discipline for making or being about to report on the wrongdoing or abuse of one of the employee’s supervisors or an agent of the employer or an appropriate authority under Virginia Code § 2.2-3009, et seq., which states “It shall be the policy of the Commonwealth that citizens of the Commonwealth and employees of governmental agencies be freely able to report instances of wrongdoing or abuse committed by governmental agencies or independent contractors of governmental agencies.”
However, it remains the burden of proof for the employee to show that the detrimental action against him/her was actually in retaliation for the “whistle blowing” and not due to poor performance or misconduct on the part of the employee. If the employee claims that the detrimental action was due to the employee being about to report, the law imposes an even higher burden of proving that he/she was about to make a good faith report, by proving that by clear and convincing evidence rather than a mere preponderance.
If the retaliation is due to information that the employee made public as a citizen, then the employee may have a First Amendment claim under the United States Constitution through 42 USC 1983. (The employee must there be speaking as a citizen and not as an employee, since employees do not have 1st Amendment protection while speaking as an employee.)
There is no pot of gold awaiting the whistleblower. The law is designed to put the employee back into the same position that he/she would have been if the retaliation had not occurred. The court may also order appropriate remedies, including (i) reinstatement to the same position or, if the position is filled, to an equivalent position; (ii) back pay; (iii) full reinstatement of fringe benefits and seniority rights; or (iv) any combination of these remedies. The whistle blower may be entitled to recover reasonable attorney fees and costs. It is important to note that unless his contract with the attorney specifies otherwise, the amount of his attorneys fees may be different and higher than the amount that the court actually requires the employer to reimburse.
Relevant whistleblowing statutes include the following (I’ve listed the “qui tam” statutes, but they probably don’t apply. Note that it is not enough that a false record was made under § 8.01-216.3, that false record must be “material to a false claim.”):
§ 2.2-3010. Definitions.
As used in this chapter:
“Abuse” means an employer’s or employee’s conduct or omissions that result in substantial misuse, destruction, waste, or loss of funds or resources belonging to or derived from federal, state, or local government sources.
“Appropriate authority” means a federal, state, or local agency or organization having jurisdiction over criminal law enforcement, regulatory violations, professional conduct or ethics, or abuse; or a member, officer, agent, representative, or supervisory employee of the agency or organization. The term also includes the Office of the Attorney General, the Office of the State Inspector General, and the General Assembly and its committees having the power and duty to investigate criminal law enforcement, regulatory violations, professional conduct or ethics, or abuse.
“Employee” means any person who is regularly employed full time on either a salaried or wage basis, whose tenure is not restricted as to temporary or provisional appointment, in the service of and whose compensation is payable, no more often than biweekly, in whole or in part, by a governmental agency.
“Employer” means a person supervising one or more employees, including the employee filing a good faith report, a superior of that supervisor, or an agent of the governmental agency.
“Good faith report” means a report of conduct defined in this chapter as wrongdoing or abuse that is made without malice and that the person making the report has reasonable cause to believe is true.
“Governmental agency” means (i) any agency, institution, board, bureau, commission, council, or instrumentality of state government in the executive branch listed in the appropriation act and any independent agency; (ii) any county, city, or town or local or regional governmental authority; and (iii) any local school division as defined in § 22.1-280.2:2.
“Misconduct” means conduct or behavior by an employee that is inconsistent with state, local, or agency standards for which specific corrective or disciplinary action is warranted.
“Whistle blower” means an employee who witnesses or has evidence of wrongdoing or abuse and who makes or demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that he is about to make a good faith report of, or testifies or is about to testify to, the wrongdoing or abuse to one of the employee’s superiors, an agent of the employer, or an appropriate authority. “Whistle blower” includes a citizen of the Commonwealth who witnesses or has evidence of wrongdoing or abuse and who makes or demonstrates by clear and convincing evidence that he is about to make a good faith report of, or testifies or is about to testify to, the wrongdoing or abuse to an appropriate authority.
“Wrongdoing” means a violation, which is not of a merely technical or minimal nature, of a federal or state law or regulation, local ordinance, or a formally adopted code of conduct or ethics of a professional organization designed to protect the interests of the public or employee.
2009, c. 340; 2011, cc. 798, 871; 2014, c. 403; 2015, c. 316; 2016, c. 292.
§ 2.2-3011. Discrimination and retaliatory actions against whistle blowers prohibited; good faith required; remedies.
A. No employer may discharge, threaten, or otherwise discriminate or retaliate against a whistle blower whether acting on his own or through a person acting on his behalf or under his direction.
B. No employer may discharge, threaten, or otherwise discriminate or retaliate against a whistle blower, in whole or in part, because the whistle blower is requested or subpoenaed by an appropriate authority to participate in an investigation, hearing, or inquiry by an appropriate authority or in a court action.
C. To be protected by the provisions of this chapter, an employee who discloses information about suspected wrongdoing or abuse shall do so in good faith and upon a reasonable belief that the information is accurate. Disclosures that are reckless or the employee knew or should have known were false, confidential by law, or malicious shall not be deemed good faith reports and shall not be protected.
D. In addition to the remedies provided in § 2.2-3012, any whistle blower may bring a civil action for violation of this section in the circuit court of the jurisdiction where the whistle blower is employed. In a proceeding commenced against any employer under this section, the court, if it finds that a violation was willfully and knowingly made, may impose upon such employer that is a party to the action, whether a writ of mandamus or injunctive relief is awarded or not, a civil penalty of not less than $500 nor more than $2,500, which amount shall be paid into the Fraud and Abuse Whistle Blower Reward Fund. The court may also order appropriate remedies, including (i) reinstatement to the same position or, if the position is filled, to an equivalent position; (ii) back pay; (iii) full reinstatement of fringe benefits and seniority rights; or (iv) any combination of these remedies. The whistle blower may be entitled to recover reasonable attorney fees and costs. No action brought under this subsection shall be brought more than three years after the date the unlawful discharge, discrimination, or retaliation occurs. Any whistle blower proceeding under this subsection shall not be required to exhaust existing internal procedures or other administrative remedies.
E. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit an employer from disciplining or discharging a whistle blower for his misconduct or any violation of criminal law.
F. No court shall have jurisdiction over an action brought under § 8.01-216.5 based on information discovered by a present or former employee of the Commonwealth during the course of his employment unless that employee first, in good faith, has exhausted existing internal procedures for reporting and seeking recovery of the falsely claimed sums through official channels and unless the Commonwealth failed to act on the information provided within a reasonable period of time.
VA Code § 2.2-3011. (emphasis added)
§ 8.01-216.5. Civil actions filed by private persons; Commonwealth may intervene.
A. A person may bring a civil action for a violation of § 8.01-216.3 for the person and for the Commonwealth. The action shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth. The action may be dismissed only if the court and the Attorney General give written consent to the dismissal and their reasons for consenting.
B. A copy of the complaint and written disclosure of substantially all material evidence and information the person possesses shall be served on the Commonwealth. The complaint shall be filed in camera, shall remain under seal for at least 120 days, and shall not be served on the defendant until the court so orders. The Commonwealth may elect to intervene and proceed with the action within 120 days after it receives both the complaint and the material evidence and information.
C. The Commonwealth may, for good cause shown, move the court for extensions of the time during which the complaint remains under seal. Any such motions may be supported by affidavits or other submissions in camera. The defendant shall not be required to respond to any motion for judgment filed under this section until twenty-one days after the complaint is unsealed and served upon the defendant.
D. Before the expiration of the 120-day period or any extensions obtained under subsection C, the Commonwealth shall proceed with the action, in which case the action shall be conducted by the Commonwealth, or notify the court that it declines to take over the action, in which case the person bringing the action shall have the right to prosecute the action.
E. When a person brings an action under this section, no person other than the Commonwealth may intervene or bring a related action based on the facts underlying the pending action.
§ 8.01-216.3. False claims; civil penalty.
A. Any person who:
1. Knowingly presents, or causes to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment or approval;
2. Knowingly makes, uses, or causes to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim;
3. Conspires to commit a violation of subdivision 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, or 7;
4. Has possession, custody, or control of property or money used, or to be used, by the Commonwealth and knowingly delivers, or causes to be delivered, less than all such money or property;
5. Is authorized to make or deliver a document certifying receipt of property used, or to be used, by the Commonwealth and, intending to defraud the Commonwealth, makes or delivers the receipt without completely knowing that the information on the receipt is true;
6. Knowingly buys or receives as a pledge of an obligation or debt, public property from an officer or employee of the Commonwealth who lawfully may not sell or pledge the property; or
7. Knowingly makes, uses, or causes to be made or used, a false record or statement material to an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the Commonwealth or knowingly conceals or knowingly and improperly avoids or decreases an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the Commonwealth;
shall be liable to the Commonwealth for a civil penalty of not less than $10,957 and not more than $21,916, except that these lower and upper limits on liability shall automatically be adjusted to equal the amounts allowed under the Federal False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. § 3729 et seq., as amended, as such penalties in the Federal False Claims Act are adjusted for inflation by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended (28 U.S.C. § 2461 Note, P.L. 101-410), plus three times the amount of damages sustained by the Commonwealth.
A person violating this section shall be liable to the Commonwealth for reasonable attorney fees and costs of a civil action brought to recover any such penalties or damages. All such fees and costs shall be paid to the Attorney General’s Office by the defendant and shall not be included in any damages or civil penalties recovered in a civil action based on a violation of this section.
B. If the court finds that (i) the person committing the violation of this section furnished officials of the Commonwealth responsible for investigating false claims violations with all information known to the person about the violation within 30 days after the date on which the defendant first obtained the information; (ii) such person fully cooperated with any Commonwealth investigation of such violation; (iii) at the time such person furnished the Commonwealth with the information about the violation, no criminal prosecution, civil action, or administrative action had commenced with respect to such violation; and (iv) the person did not have actual knowledge of the existence of an investigation into such violation, the court may assess not less than two times the amount of damages that the Commonwealth sustains because of the act of that person. A person violating this section shall also be liable to the Commonwealth for the costs of a civil action brought to recover any such penalty or damages.
C. For purposes of this section, the terms “knowing” and “knowingly” mean that a person, with respect to information, (i) has actual knowledge of the information; (ii) acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the information; or (iii) acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information and require no proof of specific intent to defraud.
D. This section shall not apply to claims, records or statements relating to state or local taxes.
The materials are prepared for information purposes only. The materials are not legal advice. You should not act upon the information without seeking the advice of an attorney. Nothing herein creates an attorney-client relationship.
Thomas H. Roberts, Esq.
Thomas H. Roberts & Associates, P.C.
105 S 1st Street
Richmond, Virginia 23219
(804) 783-2105 fax